Congenital Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism refers to an underactive thyroid gland. Congenital hypothyroidism occurs when a baby is born without the ability to make normal amounts of thyroid hormone. It occurs in about 1 in 3,000 to 4,000 newborn babies. Thyroid hormone is important for your baby’s physical (height and weight) and mental (brain) development therefore, untreated […]
Introduction to Paediatric Endocrinology
Hormonal problems in early childhood to Adolescence actually are common but they are not well recognized. We need to identify them early and treat accordingly, it is important not to lose time.
For example, if a short child needs treatment with Growth Hormone, it needs during childhood only, once you become an adult, you can’t grow taller.
Same is true about thyroid and other Hormonal issues in this age, in this chapter we highlight the common hormone-related issue in Children and Adolescence.
Thyroid cancer is less common in children and adolescents when compared to adults. Thyroid cancer is most commonly diagnosed in teenage girls but can occur in boys too. It usually manifests with a nodule seen distinctly in the thyroid gland. Compared to adults, childhood thyroid cancers have higher rates of metastases and recurrence. However, for […]
The common teenage problems that teenagers face today are usually related to: Self-Esteem and Body Image Stress Bullying Depression Cyber Addiction Drinking and Smoking Teen Pregnancy Underage Sex Defiant Behaviors Peer-Pressure and Competition Not surprisingly, all of these common teenage problems are connected to one another, in some way. However, it does not mean that […]
When the thyroid gland stops working despite being normal in the newborn period it is called ‘acquired’ hypothyroidism. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (also called autoimmune thyroiditis) is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism in children and adolescents. It usually develops after the first few years of life. It can present with or without goitre. Hence thyroid […]
Hyperthyroidism refers to too much thyroid hormone in the blood coming from the thyroid gland. What are the possible signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism? It can occur at any age but more often above age 10 and more often in girls than in boys. Children and adolescents may have some, but not all the typical […]
What are the concerns about the puberty timing? Two aspects of puberty of concern: Precocious puberty: <8 years in girls; <9 years in boys Delayed puberty: >12 years in girls; >14 years in boys Why do some bloom early? It can be due to various reasons like nutritional issues (obesity) or abnormally high hormones from […]
What is Puberty? Puberty is the sequence of physical, sexual, physiological and psychological changes that take place at adolescence which brings one to adulthood. Most of the time it is the sexual maturity which takes the forefront but all the changes need due attention because this is the time when one moves from parental control […]
What is delayed puberty? Absence of breast enlargement by 13 years or absence of menses 5 years after breast enlargement is called delayed puberty in a girl. What should be expected in girls? Breasts grow bigger – 1st sign Pubic hair /underarm hair appears Start of menstruation (periods) within 2 years of breast development- Menarche. […]
What is delayed puberty? Failure to enter into puberty later than 14 years in boys is called delayed puberty. This time may vary in different people in different ways, like family history, race and culture, nutritional status, etc. Entering puberty will mean the appearance of beard, moustache, axillary, facial hair, enlargement of penis and testes. […]
What is normal growth? At birth, a child is around 50 cm. Growth is maximum in the first year of life, about 25 cm per year. It gradually declines from birth to about 4 years. During the second year height gain is half of first year, around 12.5 cm and 6-7cm per year in third […]