Yes, not only Type 1, Type 2 Diabetes also can happen in Childhood, unfortunately, we are seeing more and more Type 2 Diabetes in Childhood, Adolescence and Young Adults. What is type 2 diabetes?
What causes type 2 diabetes in Childhood?
Type 2 Diabetes occurs when Pancreas does not give enough Insulin or quality of Insulin is not at best. Physical inactivity (Children spending a lot time with Indoor gadgets, overweight) important recognized cause of Childhood type 2 Diabetes. Eating junk foods adding to this issue, called TV and couch syndrome.
What are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes?
Usually there is no symptoms, in most of the cases. Increase infection skin and private parts are seen sometimes. Classic symptoms of Diabetes can be present in childhood as in adults.
How is type 2 diabetes diagnosed?
The diagnosis is made when a person has a blood sugar level greater than 200 mg/dL at any time (Random) with symptoms of diabetes or if the following test results occur:
• Fasting blood sugar level equal to or greater than 125 mg/dL
• A blood glucose level equal to or greater than 200 mg/dL during an oral glucose tolerance test
Or HbA1c > 6.5% (blood test that measures what percentage of hemoglobin in the blood has glucose attached to it and reflects the average blood sugar level in the blood over the prior 3 months).
What is prediabetes?
Before the development of full-blown type 2 diabetes, there can be a phase of prediabetes that is called impaired glucose tolerance (if the blood sugar level after Glucose load in GTT is between 140 and 199 mg/dL) or another form of prediabetes called impaired fasting glucose (if the fasting blood sugar level is between 100 and 126 mg/dL).
When should we start checking Children?
Some people with high blood sugar levels do not have symptoms of diabetes; therefore, the American Diabetes Association recommends that children at high risk should be screened for diabetes when puberty starts, or by age 10 years, and then every 3 years thereafter.
Who are at risk of type 2 diabetes?
Children at high risk includes overweight and obese, with first- or second-degree relative (mother, father, sister, brother, aunt, uncle, or grandparent) with type 2 diabetes, signs of insulin resistance like Acanthosis nigricans (darkening/thickening of the skin, usually on the back of the neck) or conditions associated with insulin resistance high blood pressure, atypical blood cholesterol levels , polycystic ovary syndrome (with irregular menstrual periods) in girls.
How do we prevent this?
We need to do a lot better to prevent this and at the same time to treat the affected. Not only concentrating on the patient, we need to educate families as almost all have positive family history of type 2 Diabetes.
We need to create awareness of this type of Diabetes in young among health care providers (be it general Practitioner, Physician, Paediatrician, nurse), governmental and non-governmental agencies involved in health care, pharmaceutical companies and charitable foundations.