Prolactinoma

What is prolactin ? Prolactin is a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland which maily plays a significant role in helping milk secretion in the postpartum period. What causes prolactin levels to be raised ? There are three main causes: Drugs like Metoclopromide, Chlorpromazine, anti depressants like Amitriptyline & Fluoxitene Underactive thyroid gland Prolactinomas […]

Pituitary Surgery

When is surgery needed? Pituitary surgery is required when there is a tumor in the pituitary gland a. Secreting excess hormones b. Causing compression of adjacent structures like the optic nerve causing visual disturbance Who does Pituitary surgery? Pituitary surgeries are normally done by Neurosurgeons. Where from they can touch the gland? There are two […]

Pituitary Radiotherapy

When is radiotherapy used? Reduce the size of pituitary tumors Prevent further growth of pituitary tumours Post-operatively to markedly decrease the chance of symptomatic tumour recurrence Reduce excessive hormone secretion (such as growth hormone or ACTH). How is radiotherapy given? A clear plastic mask made specially for each patient’s head, holds the patient’s head still […]

Hypopituitarism

What is hypopituitarism ? Hypopituitarism otherwise called as pituitary insufficiency refers to the low levels of circulating pituitary hormones. What causes hypopituitarism? Pituitary tumors Parapituitary rumors Craniopharyngiomas Meningiomas Radiotherapy (pituitary, cranial, nasopharyngeal) Infarction (apoplexy), Shehan’s syndrome Infiltration of the pituitary gland ( Sarcoidosis, Lymphocytic hypophysistis, haemochromatosis) Empty sella syndrome What are the symptoms? Hormone def […]

Hypogonadism

What is secondary hypogonadism? Lack of gonadal hormones (Testorterone in men and Oestrogen in women) is called Hypogonadism and when this happens due to lack of Pituitary hormone it is called secondary Hypogonadism. Normally two Pituitary hormones known as LH and FSH are responsible for stimulating Testes and Ovarian in men a and women respectively. […]

Adult GH Therapy

Why does adult GH deficiency occur? Secondary to pituitary tumor Any pathology surrounding Pituitary gland Effects of surgery or radiotherapy to pituitary How frequent is it? One in 10,000 people are affected Who should be tested? 1. Patients with hypothalamo-pituitary diseases. 2. Childhood onset GH deficiency. 3. Undergone cranial irradiation How is it diagnosed? Single […]

Acromegaly

What is acromegaly? The clinical condition arising from excessive Growth hormone (GH) secretion in adults is called Acromegaly. GH secretion is characterized by blunting of pulsatile secretion and failure of GH to become undetectable during the 24 hour day, unlike normal individuals. How common is it and what age group is affected? Scientists estimate that […]

Pituitary: How to check?

How can I see the Pituitary Gland? The pituitary gland is best visualized by a MR scan of the brain, though an X-ray or a CT scan can throw some light on the anatomy of the gland. This MR scan can be done with and without contrast. What hormones can be checked? All the hormones […]

Pituitary – Facts!

What is Pituitary? The pituitary is a Master gland which is about the size of a pea and is situated in the base of the brain. It is called the “Master gland” as it controls the functions of the other endocrine glands. It has got two lobes: Anterior lobe Posterior lobe What is its’ function? […]