What is COVID-19?
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
The disease was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China’s Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the ongoing 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic.
What is the difference between Corona and COVID-19?
The name of the virus is Corona, which is a family of an RNA virus. Not everybody with a positive test for nasal or oral swab positive has the disease, when you have the disease it is called Covid-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019).
Roughly of the 100 cases of with positive test, 60% have no symptom, they are just carrier. Rest has the disease with symptoms, mild to severe.
How does Covid 19 spread?
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) is the virus strain that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory illness. SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus.
It is contagious in humans, and the World Health Organization (WHO) has designated the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.
It is primarily spread during close contact and by small droplets produced when people cough, sneeze or talk with close contact being within approximately 1–3 m (3–10 feet).
Both sputum and saliva can carry large viral loads. Loud talking releases more droplets than normal talking. Some people without symptoms may be able to spread the virus.
It may be possible that a person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes. This is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads, but we are still learning more about this virus.
Who is at higher risk for serious illness from Covid 19?
COVID-19 is a new disease and there is limited information regarding risk factors for severe disease.
Based on currently available information and clinical expertise, older adults and people of any age who have serious underlying medical conditions might be at higher risk for severe illness from COVID-19. Based on what we know now, those at high-risk for severe illness from COVID-19 are:
- People aged 65 years and older
- People of all ages with underlying medical conditions, particularly if not well controlled, including:
- People with chronic lung disease or moderate to severe asthma, serious heart conditions, are immunocompromised or on Steroids..
Many conditions can cause a person to be immunocompromised, including cancer treatment, smoking, bone marrow or organ transplantation, immune deficiencies, poorly controlled HIV or AIDS, and prolonged use of corticosteroids and other immune weakening medications.
People with severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥40), people with diabetes and hypertension.
What are the symptoms of Covid 19?
The main symptoms of COVID-19, which may appear between 2 to 14 days after exposure, include: fever, cough, and difficulty breathing or shortness of breath. Some patients may have aches and pains, nasal congestion, sore throat or diarrhoea.
Not everyone with COVID-19 will experience symptoms, or they may be mild enough that they are dismissed, but they can still be contagious. These symptoms can also seem similar to flu and seasonal allergies but there are some differences.
Can Covid 19 be caught from a person who has no symptoms?
The main way the disease spreads is through respiratory droplets expelled by someone who is coughing. The risk of catching COVID-19 from someone with no symptoms at all is very low.
However, many people with COVID-19 experience only mild symptoms. This is particularly true at the early stages of the disease. It is therefore possible to catch COVID-19 from someone who has, for example, just a mild cough and does not feel ill.
Is there a vaccine drug or treatment for COVID-19?
Not yet. To date, there is no vaccine and no specific antiviral medicine to prevent or treat COVID-2019. However, those affected should receive care to relieve symptoms.
People with serious illness should be hospitalized. Most patients recover. Possible vaccines and some specific drug treatments are under investigation. They are being tested through clinical trials.
What preventive measures to be taken during this pandemic?
The most effective ways to protect yourself and others against COVID-19 are to clean and wash your hands frequently, cover your mouth when you cough with the bend of elbow or tissue and maintain a distance of at least 1 meter (3 feet) from people who are coughing or sneezing. Avoid Gatherings of more than 10 people, non-essential air travel.
Avoid handshaking and touching high-traffic surfaces in public places–for example, elevator buttons, door handles, handrails, or counters. Use a tissue or your sleeve to cover your hand or finger if you must touch something. Avoid touching your face, nose, eyes, etc.
In adults, emergency warning signs include: difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, persistent pain or pressure in the chest, confusion or inability to arouse and/or bluish lips or face.